An article by Rayan Al Attar, Alia Guedira and Illy Khettouch –
While extensive research has been conducted on Trump’s impact on gender and racial discrimination as two separate entities, very few authors have focused on the intersectional aspect of this matter by examining his impact on Black women. Based on press articles, academic research and analysis videos, this article will look at the rise of fear within Black American women under Trump’s term. It is undeniable that Donald’s trump speeches, behavior and policies have contributed to an increase in inequalities and a normalization of harmful stereotypes regarding Black women. These factors have significantly worsened the historically poor living conditions of Black women in the U.S. as well as their exposure to violence, including domestic abuse and police brutality. This being deeply rooted in a flawed judicial system, it leads to structural fear within Black women. It encompasses a fear of not being shielded from poverty, hatred and violence by their judicial system. Such conditions have led Black women to retaliate and address Trump’s acts, even though they are still highly excluded from mainstream activist movements. For this reason, a more inclusive and comprehensive approach to such issues is still necessary in order to create an American society truly based on equality.
Donald Trump, former president of the United States (2017-2021), has a history of discourse and behavior that is considered as racist by a wide range of the public and scholars. On top of that, his treatment of women has also been heavily criticized in the media. While one can wonder about the effects of his actions on these two isolated groups, the intersectional aspect of the issue cannot be neglected in a comprehensive analysis of the societal and psychological fallout of his presidency. Therefore, the following study pertains to the link between Donald Trump and Black American women. As the former president’s conduct is commonly viewed as fear-mongering, our research focuses on the fears felt by Black American women during Trump’s term. What were Trump’s speech patterns, behaviours and policies regarding Black women? What were their quantifiable ramifications on Black women? What tangible consequences did the heinous atmosphere that arose during his presidency have? What were the feelings of Black American women? Can other factors weigh in? And, lastly, what were their reactions? This article will begin by analyzing the consequences of Trump’s behavior and policies. Zooming in, we will examine its enhancing effect on America’s atmosphere. Last but not least, our findings will elucidate the response of Black women.
The literature review of this article will look at two of the main authors who have written about the impact of D. Trump on racism and discrimination, before analyzing how it fits into this existing research.
Firstly, Ta-Nehisi Coates is an American author, journalist, and comic book writer who has written extensively on issues of race and discrimination in America. He is the author of several books, including “Between the World and Me” and “We Were Eight Years in Power,” both of which deal with the impact of Trump’s presidency on black Americans. In “We Were Eight Years in Power,” Coates examines the Obama presidency and the subsequent rise of Trump, exploring how these two presidencies both reflected and influenced America’s racial landscape. Throughout his work, Coates offers a powerful and sobering analysis of the persistent challenges facing black Americans, while also acknowledging their resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity. This article will thus build on Coates’s research by a) adopting an intersectional approach by focusing on Black women and b) including elements pertaining to the entirety of Trump’s term. Ultimately, this article will also deal with an often neglected dimension of this issue, i.e. the sparking and nurturing of fear within Black women in regards to the deterioration of their living conditions and safety.
Secondly, Brittney Cooper is an American author and professor of Women’s and Gender Studies and Africana Studies at Rutgers University. She has written several books on issues of race and gender, including “Eloquent Rage: A Black Feminist Discovers Her Superpower,” which examines the impact of racism and sexism on black women. It is a memoir that explores her personal experiences as a Black woman navigating the intersection of race and gender in America. Through her writing, Cooper emphasizes on the importance of centering Black women’s voices and experiences in discussions of social justice and advocates for a more intersectional approach to activism and advocacy. While a personal approach to this issue has strong added-value, this article will adopt a quantitative approach as well as focus on the political aspect of this issue, especially in regards to D. Trump, a political figure having played a major role in the evolution of the matter at hand. Therefore, combining these two approaches allows for a more comprehensive understanding of fear as a concept and in relation to this issue.
The methodology for this research article involved conducting a literature review using various online sources, including academic articles, studies, and online videos. The process began by identifying relevant keywords and phrases related to the research topic. These keywords were used to conduct a comprehensive search of online databases, such as Google Scholar, JSTOR, and other academic search engines.
The articles and studies were carefully selected based on their relevance to the research question, quality of the sources, and the date of publication. The selected articles and studies were read and analyzed, and key themes and ideas were identified. The videos were also watched to gain a deeper understanding of the topic and to identify additional insights.
The research findings were compiled and synthesized, and the key findings were used to support the conclusions drawn in the article. Limitations and potential biases in the sources were also considered, and efforts were made to address these in the analysis and interpretation of the findings.
Overall, this research article utilized a rigorous and systematic approach to review and analyze the available literature and online videos to gain a comprehensive understanding of the research topic.
From Obama to Trump
On November 9th, 2016, the world froze as Donald J. Trump was announced as the winner of the American presidential elections. This was the product of months of a successful campaign, opposed by both Republicans and Democrats, to say the least. The next day, then-President Obama received the President-elect in the oval office, an honored tradition symbolizing a cordial transfer of power. The election of Donald Trump sparked outrage and fear amongst Americans, mostly because of how the electoral college was at his advantage as he didn’t win the popular vote. In fact, 45% of voters voted for Trump compared to 48% for Clinton. Only 6% of Black Americans and less than 2% of Black women voted for him, making African Americans an ultra minority in his voters1. This could as a matter of fact be seen as a prelude to what was then bound to happen next. However one may also wonder if the Obama presidency was as impactful for this community as once expected to be?
Of course having a Black couple at the White House surpassed all expectations for the community, but has he, during his 8-year long mandate, truly revolutionized Black Americans’ conditions? If we focus on black women, which we will be doing for the entire article, the presidency of Obama can actually be seen as lacking in terms of attention it paid to the struggles of black women, despite their loyalty to him in elections. While he has launched initiatives to assist at-risk boys and young men of color, he has overlooked the statistics and unique challenges faced by black girls and women. The economic recovery after the 2008 crisis under Obama left black women behind, with their unemployment rate increasing while other groups improved. Truth be told, they face a poverty rate of one in four2, with root causes including limited employment options, unequal pay, and familial responsibilities. And as the mandate slowly came to an end, his expected fight for racial equality turned out to be a great disappointment for many. Although he didn’t do much to help African American Women when it comes to their living conditions, which he could have done through policies, he always recognized the real and persistent challenges that they were facing, and has never openly insulted or publicly bullied them. One can only imagine how abrupt the presidential transition got; from a Democratic leader worshiped by minorities, to a former real estate developer who’s always been at the heart of controversies.
In 2016, during an interview with The Washington Post, Donald Trump said “Real power is — I don’t even want to use the word — fear.”. And while he was most certainly talking about installing fear as a tool for American hard power, this shows how the use of fear is essential and could be also used in many circumstances.
Trump’s speech patterns, behavior and policies regarding Black women
This brings us to his actual speeches, which have been condemned as including misogynistic as well as racist elements. This can actually be illustrated by the 2005 recording in which D.Trump is telling about his pursuit of a married woman and how he regretted he couldn’t have intercoursewith her but boasted of his status as a “star” that allowed him to “grab them by the p*ssy” whenever he wanted, “them” referring to women here. While these elements are about a white woman, his perception of womankind can be seen problematic as a president. Plus, the situation only deteriorated once he got to the ultimate position of power in the country, that is the position of president. In February 2017, during a press conference, despite being asked by journalist April Ryan about his plans to meet and collaborate with the Congressional Black Caucus, he persistently requested her to “sit down”, although it was her turn to speak. He’s done the same thing multiple times to Yamiche Alcindor, also black, whose question was judged by Mr. Trump as being “such a racist question” when asked about emboldening white nationalism. Abby Phillips was also amongst those who were insulted by him as he got to the White House, calling her questions “stupid”5. More recently, during the 2020 elections, he went after Vice-President Kamala Harris, who was then still a candidate, calling her a “monster”, a “communist” and stated that “everything she said is a lie”. Black women seemed to be the most targeted, especially those at the front line, that is to say in the media or politics.
Therefore as they were the most vulnerable, their fear of losing legitimacy as members of the press corps or simply as journalists is becoming prominent. It’s less of an issue for black female politicians as their positions offer greater job security, reducing the likelihood of getting fired only because the President discredits their work. But beyond their professional well-being, those women are role-models for Black America. Black female role models not only inspire young black women starting out in their journey to a professional career, it tells them that they can thrive and succeed. Their absence, underrepresentation in the public sphere or invalidation negatively impacts their potential, leading to possible fear in what their future will look like. Seeing someone so high up speaking so badly of this particular community can also be seen as harmful and intimidating. On top of that comes a fear of being discriminated against, because if the President himself does it, why wouldn’t anybody else? This behavior is consistent with his pattern of doubling down on hateful rhetoric aimed at minority groups, which his supporters have come to expect from him. Consequently this way of undermining women of color in positions of power; by attacking their status, their role, their legitimacy, etc. Can lead to a normalization and legitimization of these speech patterns within society and therefore to an unconscious or conscious fear that this is what will happen to them if they try to rise up.
The policies and budgets proposed by the Trump administration have also been criticized because of how discriminatory they were. For instance, proposals from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Department of Education have been deemed harmful to families of color in their efforts to fight discrimination in public housing and schools. Additionally, a proposal for cutting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s budget in 2017 disproportionately affected African American (and Hispanic) communities living in more polluted areas. What’s more, President Trump issued an executive order in 2020, banning federal entities and contractors from providing training on “divisive concepts” and “harmful ideologies” related to race and gender. However, what is considered as harmful here is actually essential to diversity training, which educates people about the systemic barriers and discrimination faced by marginalized groups in various institutions, including workplaces, schools, and the criminal justice system.
The “don’t say race” policy, issued in October of 2020, is another way of shutting down any progress towards racial equity that could be made, and to ban diversity training is keeping Black people from raising awareness of their experience thus impacting their feeling of safety. If race AND gender become touchy subjects, how are black women supposed to make themselves heard? And that’s the whole point : to silence them. With silence comes anxiety, another type of fear. Social anxiety in the workplace is common for Black women. They’re scrutinized more closely than their white colleagues and so they have to make an even better impression simply because of their skin color.
Beyond policy-making, Trump appears to be affiliated to criminal and racial groups such as white supremacists and even the Klan who openly claimed the “white race” to be superior, mostly to the detriment of the Black population. D.Trump has consistently denied acknowledging the cause of this violence: hatred that has been promoted within a tense national environment that he has contributed to creating. A study from the Southern Poverty Law Center shows that in 2018, hate groups were at an all time high. A total of 1,020 hate groups were found across the United States in 2018 compared to 954 in 2017. Among those, 148 were white nationalists and 51 were Ku Klux Klan groups. Those groups saw their speech validated if not legitimized by D. Trump on multiple occasions, a fact that seems to be correlated to an all time increase of their membership. As a consequence, it narrows the areas in which black women feel safe in, as southern states and cities become more divided and averse to the idea of living together. It is all the more alarming as the Republican Party itself embraces the idea of “great replacement” which would lead to a race war, according to them.
The consequences of the heinous atmosphere that arose under Trump’s term: nurturing structural fear
- A rise in stereotypes surrounding Black women
Under Trump’s term, stereotypes regarding Black people, women, and inherently Black women, rose significantly. This increase in stereotypes can be seen through various forms of media, including social media, news outlets, and public statements made by Trump and his administration.
A study conducted by the Pew Research Center has indicated that the number of tweets from Trump’s personal Twitter account containing negative words or phrases about African Americans increased significantly during his presidency. In the year leading up to the 2016 election, Trump tweeted negative words or phrases about African Americans in 1% of his tweets. Yet that number grew even more alarming during the first quarter of his presidency as it rose to 5%. Within the same time frame, the number of tweets containing negative words or phrases about women increased from 1% to 3% overall. This underscores a direct link between Trump’s words and their impact on societal perceptions and beliefs as he has contributed to normalizing hateful speech on public platforms. Such alarming figures are registered at a critical time in the recent history of women’s rights in the U.S. as they immediately follow the Me Too movement, particularly prevalent on Twitter.
But the rise in discriminatory discourse is not confined to social media as traditional news outlets also registered a sharp increase in the mention of stereotypes regarding Black people, women and Black women during Trump’s presidency. According to a study by the Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, the coverage of Trump’s policy proposals and executive orders related to race and gender issues was overwhelmingly negative, upholding harmful preconceived ideas regarding African-American women and perpetuating untrue narratives.
Ultimately, the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 30% from 2014 to 2018, as indicated by a report by the Southern Poverty Law Center, which encompasses Trump’s presidential campaign as well as the beginning of his term in office. The report states that Trump’s rhetoric and policies, as previously examined by this article, may have contributed to this increase.
- An increase in violence towards Black women
One of the most tangible consequences of this increase in the spread of harmful stereotypes is the rise of violence towards Black women. The increase in violence towards Black women during Trump’s presidency is a concerning trend that is influenced by several factors, including the normalization of harmful stereotypes, inequalities in access to resources and specific instances of violence and abuse against Black women, all of which are tightly linked.
Indeed, Black women historically being disadvantaged in terms of education, healthcare, and housing makes it more difficult for them to escape violent or abusive situations. According to a report by the National Women’s Law Center, Black women are more likely to live in poverty than women of any other race or ethnicity. In 2019, 23.4% of Black women lived in poverty, compared to 11.1% of white women. Trump-backed policies, notoriously putting individual and corporate interests over the well being of marginalized groups, have deepened these gaps. According to a report by the Center for American Progress, the Trump administration’s proposed budget for fiscal year 2018 would have cut funding for programs that support survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault by 20%. Although this was not approved, it is a strong indicator of the clear hardline of the party at the time. This reform also included cuts to Medicaid and other social safety net programs that were shown to disproportionately impact women and people of color.
All in all, harmful stereotypes and exclusive policies can be seen as being at the root of the inequalities harming Black women. A 2018 report by the National Women’s Law Center found that Black women in the US experience higher rates of poverty, unemployment, and housing insecurity than women of any other race. Black women also tend to be less systematically insured than their White and/or male counterparts, and to have limited access to healthcare. These economic disparities are deeply rooted in the systemic racism the criminal justice system has been entrenched in for centuries, as it disproportionately targets Black women and girls. For example, according to the Sentencing Project, Black women are imprisoned at a rate nearly twice that of white women. As of 2019, the imprisonment rate for Black women was 92 per 100,000, compared to 49 per 100,000 for white women. This begins to explain why Black women are more strongly affected by violence and abuse.
As a matter of fact, according to a 2019 report by the Center for American Progress, Black women are more likely to experience intimate partner violence (IPV) than women of any other race, and are also at higher risks of being killed as a result of violent behaviors. The report mentions that the systemic racism the criminal justice system is embedded in makes it more difficult for Black women to access protection and justice when they are victims of violence. This lack of protection can thus strongly reinforce feelings of fear in Black women.
In order to fully understand this dimension of the question, it is important to examine the evolution of rates of arrests, domestic violence, and femicides under Trump’s term, as studies suggest that they have undergone a serious increase.
The National Domestic Violence Hotline reported a 20% increase in calls from people experiencing abuse in the first week following Trump’s election in November 2016. The organization additionally points out that Trump’s behavior towards women may have contributed to this increase. Furthermore, the Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality has demonstrated that Black girls are disproportionately punished and criminalized in schools, and that this specific yet highly revealing issue has worsened under Trump’s administration. The report found that Black girls are six times more likely to be suspended from school than white girls, and are also more likely to be referred to law enforcement for disciplinary infractions. The report notes that this can have long-term negative consequences for Black girls, including increased risk of involvement in the criminal justice system and higher dropout rates, thus nurturing a sense of fear linked to their lack of trust in the judicial system that can only be qualified as deeply structural.
A first example of that would be the case of Queonna Stallworth. In February 2018, a 24-year-old Black woman named Queonna Stallworth was shot and killed by her ex-boyfriend in a Walmart parking lot in Montgomery, Alabama. Stallworth had recently filed a restraining order against her ex-boyfriend, who had a known history of domestic violence. The shooting occurred two weeks after the ex-boyfriend was released from jail on a $60,000 bond. Stallworth’s family criticized the legal system for permitting her ex-boyfriend to be released on bond despite his history of violence. This highlights a neglect of Black women’s fears and complaints, directly linked to a normalization of violence against them.
Another compelling illustration would be that of Breonna Taylor. In March 2020, Breonna Taylor, a 26-year-old Black woman, was shot and killed by Louisville Metro Police Department officers who entered her apartment with a “no-knock” warrant. The officers were conducting a drug raid, but no drugs were found in Taylor’s apartment. Taylor was shot eight times. The officers involved in Taylor’s death were not initially charged, which sparked protests and calls for justice. Eventually, one officer was indicted on wanton endangerment charges, but not for Taylor’s death. The case drew national attention and highlighted the issue of police violence against Black women, also directly linked with the normalization of violence and abuse as well as stereotypes surrounding them. Indeed, a study by the Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality found that Black girls are often viewed as more aggressive and less innocent than their white peers, which can lead to harsher punishments in school and other social and professional settings. This type of discrimination can contribute to a culture that condones violence towards Black women.
Under Trump’s term, the circumstances under which Black women lived, including their safety, health and economic stability, deteriorated significantly. Therefore, it is undeniable that they fostered one or multiple forms of structural fear. This fear encompasses that of further decline of their general living conditions as well as the closely linked one of finding themselves in dangerous and violent situations. It is deeply entrenched in the system they live in as the judicial branch of the government not only neglects but might also be at the source of such behavior.
- The structural fear felt by Black women
To further understand and contextualize the concept of structural fear as it relates to the rise in violence, increase in stereotypes, and worsening of living conditions faced by Black women under Trump’s term, it is important to examine the history of systemic racism in the United States.
The history of systemic racism in the US dates back to slavery, and has been perpetuated through Jim Crow laws and other forms of discrimination. In her book “The New Jim Crow,” legal scholar Michelle Alexander argues that the mass incarceration of Black people in the U.S. is a form of systemic racism that has replaced Jim Crow segregation as a means of social control.
This context of systemic racism and exclusion has contributed to the structural fear experienced by Black women under Trump’s term. This fear is rooted in the knowledge that they are more likely to experience violence, discrimination, and economic hardship than other groups in the US. To address this fear and its underlying causes, it is necessary to address systemic racism and work towards greater equity and justice for Black women.
Studies and surveys (mentioned further down) have shown that Black women in the US experience higher rates of fear and anxiety than other groups, which is linked to their experiences of discrimination, violence, and economic hardship.
According to a 2019 survey by the American Psychological Association, Black women are more likely than any other group to report feeling afraid and anxious about personal safety, finances, and the future of the country. The survey found that racism and discrimination were the top sources of stress for Black women, and that they were less likely than other groups to feel that they had the support they needed to manage their stress.
A 2020 survey by the Black Women’s Health Imperative found that Black women were more likely than other groups to report feeling overwhelmed and stressed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey also found that Black women were more likely to have lost income and to be struggling with basic needs like food and housing during the pandemic.
These surveys suggest that the structural fear experienced by Black women under Trump’s term is not just a feeling, but is rooted in their experiences of discrimination and economic hardship. Addressing these underlying causes requires a comprehensive approach that includes addressing systemic racism in the criminal justice system, healthcare, and other areas of society, as well as providing greater economic support and opportunities for Black women.
- Intersectionality, a crucial factor
Before moving to the final part of this article, it is crucial to examine a determining factor of the matter at hand, which pinpoints why Black women are at its very core: the question is intersectionality.
Intersectionality refers to the way in which multiple social identities, such as race, gender, class, sexuality, and ability, intersect and influence an individual’s experiences of discrimination and oppression. This means that Black women, who hold multiple marginalized identities, experience a unique form of discrimination and exclusion that cannot be fully understood by examining each identity in isolation.
Studies have shown that Black women experience higher rates of poverty, unemployment, and lack of access to healthcare than any other group in the US. According to the National Women’s Law Center, in 2019, Black women earned only 62 cents for every dollar earned by non-Hispanic white men. Additionally, Black women are more likely to experience discrimination in the workplace and face barriers to career advancement. This intersection of race and gender, along with other social identities, creates a unique set of challenges and barriers for Black women that are not experienced by other groups, including women and Black people when considered separately. And considering that these two groups are two of the most marginalized ones in the U.S., studying how racial and gender discrimination interact serves a painstaking analysis of U.S. society through a unique lens.
Intersectionality is important to consider in addressing the structural fear experienced by Black women because it emphasizes the need for a more comprehensive approach to addressing discrimination and inequality. It highlights the importance of recognizing the ways in which multiple systems of oppression interact and contribute to the experiences of Black women, and the need for policies and programs that take into account this intersectionality.
In conclusion, the experiences of Black women in the US are shaped by a complex interplay of factors, including systemic racism, exclusion, stereotypes, and intersectionality. To address the structural fear experienced by Black women and work towards greater equity and justice, it is necessary to address these underlying causes and take a comprehensive approach that acknowledges the intersectionality of their experiences.
The Response of Black Women
The political climate in the United States during the presidency of Donald Trump has led to a significant sense of insecurity and fear among Black women. One of the most common responses to this political climate is avoidance. Black women are avoiding situations they perceive as potentially dangerous or harmful, which can take many forms, such as avoiding certain neighborhoods, dropping out of school, quitting jobs, or migrating to other countries or states. According to a report by the National Domestic Workers Alliance, many black immigrant women have left the United States due to fear of deportation or other immigration-related issues. This fear has been fueled by D.Trump’s harsh immigration policies, which have led to increased immigration enforcement activities at hospitals and other medical facilities. As a result, black women are also avoiding seeking medical care, which can have serious consequences on their health.
The fear of being targeted by immigration authorities is not unfounded, as many black women, notably in South Florida have been subjected to racial profiling and discrimination by immigration officials. Indeed, according to a report by the Black Alliance for Just Immigration, black immigrants are more likely to be targeted for deportation than any other immigrant group. This has led to a sense of vulnerability and fear among black women, who feel that their lives are at risk. The impact of this avoidance response is significant. It affects the mental and physical health of black women, as well as their educational and economic opportunities. Dropping out of school or quitting jobs can have long-term consequences for black women, and migrating to other countries can be a traumatic experience.
In addition to the aforementioned consequences, the avoidance response has also led to a sense of isolation and disempowerment among black women. They feel as though they are unable to participate fully in society and that their voices are not being heard. This sense of exclusion can have a negative impact on their mental health and well-being. Thus, the political climate in the United States under D.Trump’s mandate has had a detrimental effect on black women. The fear and insecurity caused by his harsh immigration policies have led to a significant avoidance response, which has had serious consequences for their health, education, and economic opportunities. It is important for policymakers and society as a whole to recognize and address these issues in order to create a more just and inclusive society.
Despite the sense of insecurity and vulnerability that many black women feel under President Trump’s mandate, there has also been a notable increase in retaliation and counter-speech. This can be seen in the rise of movements such as Black Lives Matter and the Women’s March, both of which were founded in response to the Trump administration’s policies and rhetoric. Black women have had a significant role in these movements and have been vocal in their opposition to the administration’s policies. According to a report by the Center for American Progress, black women were a driving force behind the Women’s March, with one in every five marchers being black. Additionally, black women have been at the forefront of the Black Lives Matter movement, which was founded in response to the killing of Trayvon Martin in 2012. Black women have also used social media to express their opposition to the Trump administration’s policies as according to a report by Sage journals, black women are more likely than any other group to use social media to express their views on political issues. Black women have used social media platforms like Twitter and Instagram to organize protests, share information about immigration policies, and express their opposition to the administration’s policies.
Regardless of these efforts, the fear and insecurity caused by the Trump administration’s harsh immigration policies have led to a significant avoidance response among black women. This has had serious consequences for their health, education, and economic opportunities. As the SAMHSA stated Many black immigrant women have left the United States due to fear of deportation or other immigration-related issues, and black women are avoiding seeking medical care due to the fear of being targeted by immigration authorities. The impact of this avoidance response is significant. It affects the mental and physical health of black women, as well as their educational and economic opportunities. Dropping out of school or quitting jobs can have long-term consequences for black women, and migrating to other countries can be a traumatic experience.
In addition to the aforementioned consequences, the avoidance response has also led to a sense of isolation and disempowerment among black women. Most certainly, some could argue that they feel as though they are unable to participate fully in society and that their voices are not being heard. This sense of exclusion can have a negative impact on their mental health and well-being. Hence, it is important for policymakers and society as a whole to recognise and address the issues facing black women under the Trump administration’s mandate. While there has been an increase in retaliation and counter-speech, the fear and insecurity caused by harsh immigration policies have had serious consequences for black women. It is imperative to create a more just and inclusive society that allows black women to participate fully and be heard.
Ironically, despite their significant contributions to movements like Black Lives Matter and the Women’s March, many black women have been excluded from these movements. This is due in part to the fact that these movements are often led by white women, who have been criticized for their failure to address the specific concerns of black women. Additionally, many black women have felt that these movements have not provided them with a space to voice their concerns and experiences. According to a report by the National Women’s Law Center, black women are often marginalized within the feminist movement, and are less likely to be represented in leadership roles within feminist organizations. This marginalization is a result of both racism and sexism. Despite the fact that black women are more likely to experience barriers to reproductive healthcare, they are often excluded from discussions about reproductive rights. This exclusion has serious consequences for the health and well-being of black women. Furthermore, the intersectionality of race, gender, and class often makes it difficult for black women to find a space within movements that address only one aspect of their identity. The failure of these movements to recognize and address the unique experiences of black women has led to a sense of exclusion and disempowerment.
It is crucial for movements to be inclusive and recognize the diverse experiences of black women. This can be achieved by elevating the voices of black women and ensuring that they are represented in leadership positions. Additionally, movements must address the intersectionality of race, gender, and class, and recognise the unique experiences of black women within these contexts.
In conclusion, the fear felt by Black women during Trump’s term has been a significant issue that has caused much concern and anxiety within the community. However, with the election of President Biden and his administration’s focus on gender and racial equity, there has been a renewed hope for Black women’s empowerment and visibility in positions of power.
The Biden administration’s commitment to increasing visibility of Black women and challenging color hierarchies has the potential to transform the identity of America. This is an important step towards a more inclusive society where individuals are valued based on their merit, rather than their skin color or ethnicity, thus challenging the systemic fear that arose within African-American communities.
It is crucial to recognize that Black women, like all individuals, should be seen and valued as Americans first and foremost. The idea that someone’s identity and worth should be defined solely by their skin color or ethnicity is deeply flawed as it leads to inequalities and feelings of exclusion, inferiority and fear. Therefore, it is essential to continue to challenge and dismantle these harmful narratives and work towards creating a more equitable society for all individuals.
1 “An examination of the 2016 electorate, based on validated voters” by Pew Research Center, Aug. 9, 2018
2 “Black Women are Obama’s Most Loyal Voters — And His Most Ignored Constituency” by Kali Gross, Oct. 5, 2015
3 Transcript of Donald Trump’s interview with Bob Woodward and Robert Costa, Apr. 2nd, 2016
4 Recording of Trump’s uncensored lewd comments about women from 2005, Oct. 8, 2016
5 “Trump’s Attacks On Black Female Journalists” by Jim Braude, Nov. 13th, 2018
6 “Trump calls Kamala Harris ‘monster’ and ‘communist’ in Fox tirade after VP debate”, by Chris Riotta Oct. 8th, 2020
7 “Trump Administration’s Proposed Rule Would Perpetuate Racist and Discriminatory Housing Practices” by Peggy Bailey and Anna Bailey, Oct. 18, 2019
8 ‘Just racist’: EPA cuts will hit black and Hispanic communities the hardest by Oliver Milman, Mar 3rd, 2017
9 “The Trump Administration is Banning Talk about Race and Gender” by Sarah Hinger and Brian Hauss, Oct 9, 2020
10 “To Be Female, Anxious and Black” by Angela Neal-Barnett, Apr. 23, 2018
11 “Ahead of Pro-Trump Rally, KKK Members Claim They’re ‘Not White Supremacists’” by The Associated Press, Dec. 11, 2016
12 Donald Trump’s long history of enabling white supremacy, explained by Nicole Narea, Nov 29, 2022
13 How the ‘replacement’ theory went mainstream on the political right by Domenico Montanaro, May 17, 2022
14.Black Alliance for Just Immigration
15.The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
16. Sage journals
17. Substance abuse and mental health services administration
18. Pew Research Center ( DECEMBER 11, 2020 )
Moorer, E. “What President Obama did (and didn’t) do for Black women.” Vox, 20 Nov. 2018, https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2018/11/20/18102691/obama-black-women-dnc-midterm-elections.
Saslow, L. “The psychology behind Donald Trump’s success.” The Guardian, 29 Nov. 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/nov/29/the-psychology-behind-donald-trumps-success.
Smith, D. “Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversations about women in 2005.” The Guardian, 7 Oct. 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/oct/07/donald-trump-lewd-comment-women-2005-tape.
Pew Research Center. (2018, August 10). Trump, Clinton Voters Divided in Their Main Source for Election News. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2017/09/07/trump-clinton-voters-divided-in-their-main-source-for-election-news/
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